Scrum Methodology: Benefits, Roles, Event and Artifacts


What is Scrum?

The Scrum framework is an agile development method employed to create software based on iterative, incremental processes. Scrum is flexible, quick and efficient. Agile framework developed to bring benefits to the customer during the entire development process of the project. The main goal that is the focus of Scrum is to meet the requirements of the customer by providing an environment that is transparent in communication, shared responsibility, and continual advancement. The process begins with an idea of what should be constructed and then the list of attributes that are arranged according to the priority (product backlog) that the person who owns the product is hoping to attain.

A brief history of Scrum

Scrum was first mentioned in the Harvard Business Review (HBR) article “The New Product Development Game” by Hirotaka Takeuchi and Ikujiro Nonaka in 1986. This article explains how firms like Honda, Canon, and Fuji-Xerox use a scalable and team-based approach to product development to create new products worldwide. The importance of enabling self-organized teams is emphasized in this strategy.

The paper influenced the development of many of the concepts that later became known as Scrum. Scrum is a rugby term that describes how the game is restarted after a foul or when the ball has left the field.

By combining the concepts of the 1986 article with the concepts of object-oriented development, empirical process control, iterative development, and incremental software processes and productivity improvement, as well as the development of complex and dynamic systems, Jeff Sutherland and his team at Easel Corporation created the Scrum process to be used in software development processes in 1993.

Six Principles of Scrum Six Principles of Scrum

The Scrum framework is based on six fundamental principles and guidelines that must be adhered to throughout the entire project. Must is the keyword in this context since Scrum followers insist that every principle remains intact and attached to ensure that the team does not lose focus or cause the project to experience any failures. These six principles include:

Control over the empirical process.

In Scrum, the method of empirical control is based on the observation of empirical evidence and experimentation instead of theory. Three main concepts are fundamental to empirically controlling processes: transparency, inspection, and adaption.


Because the Scrum method relies on multiple people, self-organization is crucial. Each participant can work in a team, and self-organization helps increase participation across all parties and make it much easier for everyone to evaluate their contribution.


Scrum is a collaborative procedure demonstrated by the variety of roles in the process (more about that later). The principle also focuses on three aspects essential to collaboration: understanding communication and appropriation.

Value-based prioritization.

This method involves planning and prioritizing tasks according to their importance and how they must be accomplished.


In Scrum, the tasks are accomplished within “sprints,” with specific times allocated to each. Other components, like “sprint planning” and daily meetings, also provide time-specific start and stop dates. This boxing of time ensures that all participants strictly know what time has been allotted to each stage to avoid delays and time-wasters.

Iterative development.

This last principle reflects the notion that a project might need to be refined several times throughout development. Iterative development gives the team the ability to make changes and make changes easier to manage.

A Review of the Basics


The first thing to note is that its LeSS, a very adaptable minimalist, simple, and non-prescriptive way of working. Instead of making things more complicated, it seeks to make things easier by establishing ground guidelines. Thus, it’s regarded as a simple choice by many users. The principle that guides the HTML0 is to utilize as few procedures as possible to ensure that all teams are on the same team. There’s a shared Backlog, Sprint Review, and the Product Owner. The procedures themselves are based on Scrum, albeit with a few tweaks. Additionally, LeSS has two different models. Framework 1 is designed to accommodate smaller businesses with up 10-teams (with seven numbers for each). Framework 2 is designed for larger firms. In both instances, a Product Owner is responsible for multiple teams. Unsurprisingly, applications in the industry illustrate how LeSS is more efficient when working in smaller spaces. It’s a good starting point for people who’ve put in the Scrum base.


Scrum@Scale is a lot more flexible in comparison to LeSS. The concept was invented by Jeff Sutherland, one of the founders of Scrum, and he was looking to focus on the most critical issues that cause friction on the path of scaling. This is why he conceived Scrum@Scale as a meta conceptual framework, and it can blend with other methodologies in our list or be a unique framework. The main benefit is modifying the scaling according to your particular situation. The two major roads to a successful development process are The Product Owner Cycle and Scrum Master Cycle. The first process is based on strategic vision, prioritization of Backlogs, release planning and management, and release review. The Scrum Master Cycle is based on team coordination across teams and continuous improvement and elimination of obstacles. The two cycles are linked and dependent.

Scrum of Scrums

The following method of scaling is among the oldest and the most well-known. Specifically, Scrum of Scrums incorporates team members working in the same area. It promotes close collaboration to ensure that outputs are synchronized across all teams. This process is essential to handle the overlapping of events and their sequencing. Scrum of Scrums meetings that help to ensure the successful deployment. They take each week, at a minimum, and every day at the maximum. Teams send their Scrum master or other members to these meetings. This is to remove obstacles, talk about past achievements and make plans for the future sprints. Perusing these objectives regularly allows even the largest organizations to take advantage of the Agile approach to business.


Nexus is a framework that is lightweight and designed for larger businesses. It increases the transparency of results and also accountability. These are two principles that are often forgotten during the process of scaling. The methodology covers everything from practice and skills sets to software and infrastructure requirements. The most significant difference between different models is introducing a new position called Nexus Integration Team (NIT) and an artifact dubbed Nexus Sprint Backlog. NIT is responsible for supervising the development of available technology (“Done”), and it’s comprised of delegates of all Scrum Teams. A new version of the Backlog is a continuous workflow and its enhancement. It’s a tool to visualize the tasks that need to be accomplished within one Sprint. It lets you overcome integration problems and work to identify dependencies among teams.

Enterprise Scrum

Enterprise Scrum is a strategy developed by Late Mike Beedle. Its primary purpose is to increase flexibility throughout the organization, from management through interdepartmental relations to individual teams. There are a lot of areas of focus for Enterprise Scrum. The first is equilibrium. Namely, Enterprise Scrum seeks to balance profits and social impact, as well as the satisfaction of employees and customer satisfaction. Another area of focus on Enterprise Scrum is delivering value in the shortest time possible and enhancing this with constant improvement.

Scrum Methodology & Process

scrum-process Scrum is a specific improvement in Agile Management. Scrum methodology relies on very defined practices and roles that have to be involved when developing software processes. It’s a flexible methodology that encourages using the 12 agile principles within an environment agreed upon by everyone in the team working on the software.

Scrum is carried out in short blocks that are both short and regular, known as Sprints. They typically last between 2 and 4 weeks. This is the name used to describe reflecting and feedback. Every sprint is an entire unit by itself, meaning it is a complete outcome and improvement of the final product, which can be handed over to the client at the lowest effort when asked for.

The procedure lists objectives requirements that comprise the plan of work as the starting point. The project’s client prioritizes these goals based on an equalization of the price and value, which is how delivery and subsequent iterations are made.

On the other hand, the market demands high-quality, rapid delivery with lower prices. A company must be highly flexible and agile in its development of products to have shorter development cycles to satisfy customers’ demands without compromising its quality product. It’s a simple approach to adopt and is well-known for the speedy outcomes it yields.

The Scrum methodology  is primarily used to develop software. However, other industries are also profiting from its benefits by implementing this method in their organizational structures, such as marketing, sales, HR teams, etc.

Read more: Top 10 Best Scrum Software for 2022

Scrum Team and Roles


The Scrum team focuses on producing high-quality software. The Scrum project owner identifies what characteristics the product must construct (what to build, what not to build, and in what order) and overcomes any obstacles that may obstruct the development team’s task.

How do Scrum teams work?

The Scrum Team is usually composed of “ten or less.” However, the size of the team is determined by the particular project being considered. The purpose that is the goal of the Scrum framework is to bring benefits to the customer by following a structure for rapid delivery and iterative planning. To allow Scrum to be successful, it must have an effective communication system, accountability, and collaboration among team members. There are many other features of high-performing Scrum teams.
  • Transparency: Product owners need to be precise and clear in presenting the backlog of their product and stakeholder/customer priority. The development team should be clear about obstacles and obstructions to be addressed promptly.
  • Accountability: Members of the Scrum team are accountable to each other and the accomplishment of the sprint’s final goal.
  • Self-organized: Every person on the team must understand their role and responsibilities. They should also be involved in solving problems.

Roles in Scrum Team

The Scrum team is comprised of the roles below:

Product Owner

The product owner acts as a mini-CEO. Imagine them as an executive, a liaison to the stakeholder, and an advocate for the client’s needs. The duties of the product owner are:
  • Determining the sprint’s goal: Product owners prioritize the backlog based on the product’s roadmap. With the assistance of the Scrum team, the product owner decides the objectives and the priorities for the following sprint.
  • Managing the product backlog: The product backlog comprises features tasks, user stories, and deliverables. The owner of the product’s duty is to ensure that the backlog is updated regularly.
  • Create a vision for your product: Product Owner is also the person who owns the product’s vision. The product’s vision is a document that describes the ideal customer, the product’s performance, its mission, its primary goal, and the value it will bring to users.

Scrum master

Sometimes, Scrum Master are viewed as facilitators of the team. Typically, the Scrum master is a critical leadership position of servanthood inside the Scrum team. The responsibilities of the Scrum master include:
  • Participating in Agile Scrum principles: The Scrum Master is responsible for upholding and educating team members about Agile Scrum principles and enforcing the application. They maintain the product owners and development teams on the Agile course as they need to. Scrum masters are responsible for ensuring that the team is agile. Scrum master also coordinates Scrum activities like those of the daily stand-up meetings. They often determine the time, place, participants, and other essential factors for a successful meeting.
  • Coach: The Scrum Master is an example to members of the Scrum team, ensuring that they’re focusing on the sprint’s goals and effectively working with the other participants in the group.
  • Removal of roadblocks and distractions: When external influences begin to impact the team’s outputs, It is the responsibility of the Scrum supervisor to ensure these obstacles are eliminated.
  • Mediating: In some cases, the development team and the product owner disagree. The Scrum master will often be able to in resolving these disputes.

Development team

In contrast to the other roles, The development team doesn’t comprise just a person but a team of people. They’re the technical portion of the Scrum team. They have a strong background in their particular area of expertise and maybe UX designers, Front-end designers, Quality testers, etc. The type of project will define the roles required for teams of developers, and therefore there’s no template for it. The traits of a development team include:
  • Experts: The development team requires experienced experts or those who know how to meet the project’s technical requirements.
  • Account: The development team is accountable for any mishap or delivery, or an error in the final product. Because they are the technical team, any issue that might result from the delivery of the product in itself is a matter for team members responsible for development.
  • Self-organizing: Like the other members of the Scrum team, the development team is self-organizing. This means they have a say in their respective assignments and take an active role in solving problems. Every member of the development team must be able to plan their projects and complete their everyday task on the software, participate in meetings and adhere to deadlines.
  • Cross-functional: The development team consists of individuals with different expertise required to accomplish the objectives of the product.

Benefits of Scrum Methodology

Scrum offers many positives over different agile development techniques, and it is the most widely used and trusted framework of reference in software. Here are a few most well-known advantages of Scrum:

Easy to Scale: The Scrum process is iterative and is handled at specific times of operation, making it more straightforward for teams to identify specific functions for each phase. This has the benefit of creating more efficient deliverables that meet the users’ demands and the team’s ability to expand the modules according to capabilities as well as design, scope, and other characteristics in a systematic, clear, and straightforward method.

Conformity of expectations: The client defines their expectations, indicating the value each requirement historical aspect of the project will bring. The team then estimates these and based on this. The Product Owner determines its priorities. During sprint demos, the Product Owner confirms that the requirements are satisfied and provides feedback for the teams.

Resilient to changes: Rapid response to the changes in requirements triggered by market changes. The method is designed to meet the evolving requirements of complex projects.

Reduced time to market: The client can begin by using the main functions of the project even before the project is fully completed.

Better quality software: The work process and the requirement to have an operational version following each version allow for improved software.

Timely Prediction: With this technique, we can determine the group’s speed average via sprints (story points) using, which makes it possible to predict when the specific feature in the backlog is going to be in the future.

Risk reduction: In the event of executing the most beneficial functions in the first place, being aware of the speed at which the team progresses on the process allows us to identify risks before the time.

Events in Scrum

Every one of these Scrum events helps to adapt to some aspects of the procedure, the final product, progress, or the connections. Sprint: It is the most fundamental working unit for a Scrum team, and this is the principal aspect that makes the difference between Scrum or other types of agile development models. Sprint Planning: The goal of Sprint Planning will be to determine what will be accomplished during the sprint and how it will be accomplished. The meeting occurs at the start of every sprint and will be a way of defining the way it will approach the project from an initial Product Backlog stage and deadlines. Each sprint is comprised of various elements. Daily Scrum: The objective of the Daily Scrum is to evaluate the progress and the trend to the conclusion of the sprint by synchronizing the work and establishing a plan for the following 24 hours. This is a brief meeting held each day in each Sprint period. Each participant asks three questions: What did I accomplish yesterday? What do I plan to do today? What assistance do I require? The Scrum Master must try to find solutions to problems or challenges. Sprint Review: The Sprint Review aims to highlight the work that has been accomplished regarding the product backlog to ensure future delivery. The completed sprint is evaluated, and there must be visible and apparent progress in the product to show the customer. Sprint retrospective: The team looks back at the accomplishments of the sprint completed and notes down the good and the bad to avoid repeating the same mistakes repeatedly. This phase is used to implement changes from the standpoint of the process of development. The Sprint retrospective phase aims to determine possible improvements to the process and create plans to implement them during the following sprint.

Scrum Artifacts

scrum-artifacts Scrum Artifacts are created to ensure the accuracy of crucial information used in the process of decision making. Product Backlog (PB): is a document that contains all the information a product requires to satisfy prospective customers. The product owner creates it, and functions are prioritized depending on what is more or less crucial for the company. The objective is for the product’s owner to be able to respond, “What is the best way to do this”. Sprint Backlog (SB): It’s an item from the product backlog chosen by the team to be used during the sprint on which they will be working. The team decides on the length of each sprint. The sprint backlog is shown on physical boards, referred to as Scrum boards. This allows the development process to be visible to all who enter the development zone. Increment: The Increment represents the sum of all tasks, including user stories, use cases, backlogs of products, as well, as any aspect that was developed during the sprint. It will be available to the end-user via software.

Planning in Scrum

The Sprint Planning Meeting is held at the beginning of every sprint. All members of the team are present at this meeting. i.e., The Scrum Master, the Product Owner, and the entire Development Team. The team as a whole Scrum team needs to understand and determine what goal should be achieved in the Sprint (Sprint goal). The team responsible for development must create a work plan to achieve the goal. The plan must allow you to assess if your sprint’s goal requires a load as per the time frame specified by the Sprints (which can range from between 2 and 4 weeks). The client displays the outcome to be achieved during that sprint and the specifications of the final product. This is where you need to have a conversation where the development team reviews the elements on the list that could be fulfilled. The Scrum Master and the Product Owner should work together to understand each aspect of specifications. In addition, the development team should explain how they intend to structure the team’s work to meet the Sprint objective. If you are now aware of the Scrum methodology and how it could assist you, are you keen to apply it to your organization? Contact us, and we’ll assist you in turning your current system into a more effective one.